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Biotechnology(M.Sc./B.Sc.)

Biotechnology has been described as "Janus-faced". This implies that there are two sides. On one side, techniques allow DNA to be manipulated to move genes from one organism to another. On the other, it involves relatively new technologies whose consequences are untested and should be met with caution. The term "biotechnology" was coined in 1919 by Karl Ereky, an Hungarian Engineer.

Biotechnology is NOT new. Man has been manipulating living things to solve problems and improve his way of life for millennia. Early agriculture concentrated on producing food. Plants and animals were selectively bred, and microorganisms were used to make food items such as beverages, cheese, and bread.

Biotechnology is currently being used in many areas including agriculture, bioremediation, food processing, and energy production. DNA fingerprinting is becoming a common practice in forensics. Production of insulin and other medicines is accomplished through cloning of vectors that now carry the chosen gene. Immunoassays are used not only in medicine for drug level and pregnancy testing, but also by farmers to aid in detection of unsafe levels of pesticides, herbicides, and toxins on crops and in animal products. These assays also provide rapid field tests for industrial chemicals in ground water, sediment, and soil. In agriculture, genetic engineering is being used to produce plants that are resistant to insects, weeds, and plant diseases.

New biotechnological techniques have permitted scientists to manipulate desired traits. Prior to the advancement of the methods of recombinant DNA scientists were limited to the techniques of their time-cross-pollination, selective breeding, pesticides, and herbicides. Today's biotechnology has its "roots" in chemistry, physics, and biology. The explosion in techniques has resulted in three major branches of biotechnology; genetic engineering, diagnostic techniques, and cell/tissue techniques:

* Genetic engineering
* Biosensor
* Use of Microbes
* Bioremediation
* Processing of low-grade ores using micro-organisms
* Gene Therapy
* Immunotechnologies
* Tissue Culture
* Stem cell techniques
* Enzyme engineering and technology
* Photosynthetic efficiency
* New DNA technologies
* Plant-based drugs

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MP Paramedical Council,Bhopal
I.A.P.(Indian Association of Physiotherapy),New Delhi
Affiliated to :
Jiwaji University,Gwalior (M.P.)
M.P. Medical Sciences University,Jabalpur (M.P.)

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